It includes a large hall with sculpted doorframes. In a similar argument, Spencer and Redmond Most of these seem to continue Elamite settlements McCall Have the spatial and temporal distinctions been adequately considered? San Lorenzo rapidly declined in regional prominence and population as secondary sites moved away from the center Coe and Koontz After this access had been closed and a new, northwestern one, just described, constructed under Darius or Xerxes — BC , the southwestern sector remained recog- nizable as all its buildings stand on separate socles with sculptured staircases , raising them above the remainder of the terrace Kleiss ; Roaf The North Complex and Northeast Complex are amalgamations of structures of indeterminate chronology.

Theorists have furthered this equivocal assumption by attempting to standardize the social complexity and political orga nization perceived in the Olmec phenomenon. In , Francisco del Paso y Troncoso employed the phrase Olmec type as a descriptor for a number of ceramic figuri nes that had been found in Guerrero and Morelos, Mexico Pina-Chan It included Achaemenid column bases in secondary Seleucid or Parthian context. A review of the evidence, in [Anonymus], ed. Models of Political and Economic Organization The models considered here are illustra tive of various types of settlement organization that have been proposed for the Southern Gulf Lowlands and the interrelationships between their political and economic processes. More to the point researchers need to r ecognize the limitations of indirect evidence, question the validity of inferred conclusions based on tentative assumptions, and examine the situation from mul tiple scales of analysis and from varying perspectives in order to arrive at the most accurate conclusions possible. Praesent sit amet ornare diam, non finibus nulla. Persepolis and its Settlements.

The San Juan River is more than a cultural and ecological border, however. The rescue of the Olmec throne was successful.

Other interpretations conclude that Laguna de los Cerros dominated the settlement hierarchy Santley et al. The plasticity inherent in this type of approach allows investigators to vary the scale of analysis at different times during their investigation in order to produce the most effective recovery of data and identification of patterns.

All of these conclusions, as to the significance of Laguna de los Cerros during the late Early Formative period, daison based on the presence of numerous Olmec-style sculptures and extensive architectural remains. They contain comp arable subject matter, art style, and 54 PAGE 77 55 iconographic detail, and appear to have been rendered according to the artistic canons developed by artisans at the La Vent a ceremonial center Gonzlez-Lauck The following year he published the results of a regional survey conducted near La Venta with Contreras Drucker and Contreras Two views of Offering IV, a lip-to-lip vessel deposit Figure 5.


He states that proponents of the mechanical ontological approach infer that space landscape has little e ffect on the socio-historical process, that spatial analysis is only a search for the fundamental geometry that structures the world Smith In they were photographed by Franz Stolze Stolze and Andreas ; cf. The assistance a nd encouragement given to me by Karla L. The existence of a second gate has been postulated at the foot of the western slope of the Apadana mound; it would be connected to a staircase decorated with friezes of glazed bricks similar to some Persepolis reliefs Kaboli ; cf.

Names, Dates and Dynasties. San Lorenzo rapidly declined in regional prominence and population as secondary sites moved away from the center Coe and Koontz The initial report about the site of La Venta in western Tabasco, Mexico, was made following a survey of the region in by Blom and La Farge They are of prime importance for revealing royal ideology but are a feeble basis for historical reconstruction.

Christian Wells, I have been guided through the intricacies of research and scholarship, and I thank both for their support and patience. Two oblique views of El Mar quesillo Figure 4. Contents of the Treasury and Other Discoveries. Archaeo- logical evidence is limited to a few inhumations. He goes on to add the possibility that the significant distances between regional centers along the Gulf Coast were designed so as not to impinge on the lands of others.

This redistribution of land to campesinos, or subsistence farmers, was an effort to diminish the domination of the still active and extensive hacienda system that originated in the 16th century Fallaw Thus, temporal and spatial discord was immediately embedded in the term itself. Unlike Pasargadae and Persepolis, Susa was not a new foundation of the Persian kings, but an old Elamite city.

Yet, the building was lower by 13 metersnot set on a socle, and its interior hall is surrounded by passages on three sides; the eight sculpted entrances from the passages and the northern portico did not have doors.

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Essays on the Creation of an Iconography of Elisode. The significance of these findings is due to the fact that the Olmec have been used repeatedly as a theoretical exemplar for incipient and emergent social complexity and culture progress. Thus, the initial use of the term Olmec and the first description of monumental sculpture that has become synonymous w ith the Formative period Southern Gulf Lowlands were based on supposition.

Then, I briefly review anthropological theory as it pertains to the Olmec and how it has been used to build and support theoretical ideas of social development. Further pedestrian reconnaissance of the site was heaetland performed.


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The civic-ceremonial center of La Venta is situated atop a natural swison dome that rises well above the surrounding floodplain. Innovative, aspiring Olmec elites, for example, may have served novel, exotic domesticates, such as maize, to their communities, rivals, or factions to gain status and prestige.

Ergebnisse des Behbahan-Zuhreh Surveys. The colors used included light and dark blue, red, green, white, and perhaps gold.

It includes a large hall with sculpted doorframes. Sketch maps of a portion of El Marquesillo in and in Figure 4. With its initial rise corres ponding to the decline of San Lorenzo, the concurrence of dates have le d social theorists and others to claim that following the heartlans of San Lorenzo, its power passed to La Venta Coe and Koontz Stolze and Andreas and Herbert Weld Blundell did small-scale soundings at Persepolis, but major excavations only started inunder Ernst E.

An entire cultural system is too complex and inclusive to be used as a unit of analysis; it is inadequate to explain the inherent complexity and nuances of the system. River cut profile 7A Figure 5. There are distinctive physical expressi ons that relate to ancestor veneration, occupational and cultural continuity, interaction of the anci ent people with their landscape, and the manifestation of their worldview. Test units heartlnad the perimeter of the La Venta ceremonial district uncovered permanent Middle Formative period settlement features that included urn burials, ceramic offerings, house floors, storage pits, and a serpentine and greenstone workshop Rust His conceptualized hexagons were placed on an isotropic plane that contained constant universalities in tran sport, distance, and effort, and the market demands were equivale nt.

The Postclassic Period c. Close-up of the figure seated w ithin niche Figure 5. It cannot be assumed that everyone living in the region participated in this system, and it should be recognized that the degree of participation, or non-participation, probably varied epislde site to site and across time.

saiskn The stratigraphy in the excavations plus burials and their contents indicated that the older Formative material was deposited over newer Late Classic deposits Cyphers The results suggest certain sociopol itical and settlement similarities to other contemporary regional sites. In contrast to the assuredness expresse d by many social theorists e.