Violence is Not Always Bad: Their detentions in- creased the absurd figures of the post-war prison system. Boduszynski, International Justice and Domestic ‘ Politics: In a decentralised and unauthoritative system such as inter- national law it is easy to understand why defining the con- ditions in which violence is authorised and legitimised is a difficult exercise. This is the reason why if violence helps democ- racy and humanitarian purposes, the illegality of the use of 72 A. Violence is also presented according to different terminolo- gies in the international realm, reflecting the porous bound- aries of the concept itself. For this reason, according to Sofsky, theories explaining violence on the basis of a good or evil predisposition of human nature are useless. The triumphant militaries in Galicia, Seville, Aragon and Old Castile covered the surrounding areas of cemeteries, pathways and local speedways with improvised tombs.

This seems to be one of the reasons: Skip to main content. The right- wing and the landowner became fascists, the trade unionist and the Republi- can teacher became revolutionaries. Hannah Arendt defined terror as an extreme approach of government that implies elements of communication and arbitrariness. In such a case, you need to be proactive and tackle your objective in a more conclusive way. Overall, liberal intema- tional legal scholars have been enthusiastic about the idea j of promoting democracy worldwide as a way of preventing! Organization 46 , p. Francoist violence during the post-war period cannot be separated from violence during the war, and this for several reasons.

Keohane, Theory of World Politics: Click here to sign up. It should definitely move away from a reduction to bipolarities and imposed standards that interfere with the complexity of the problems.

Structural Realism and Beyond, in: Rejection of the war on terror, as recently declared by the Obama administration, is not the end of the road. However, as he rightly expresses with irony, “given the nature of interna- 57 J. Global Governance 1p. Shue, Limiting Sovereignty, in: But cases like that of the prov- ince of Jaen reflect the asymmetry of the violence and brutality that was used by the vanquishers of the struggle: Data for provinces such as Alicante or Valencia, in Republican hands until the very end of the war, indicate some symmetry, at least nu- merically.

Habermas, An Interview on War and Peace, in: Bermejo Garcia, El marco jurfdico internacional en materia de uso de la fuerza; ambigiiedades y h’mites, Civitas, Madridp.


Coady, supra note JO, p. The state lost the monop- oly on the legitimate use of force. Violence is Not Always Bad: Due to the fact that neither realists nor neo- conservatives emphasise the concept of democracy as a process in which people get involved in all levels of the deci- sion making, it is easy to conclude that for realists or neo- conservatives, using or imposing democracy hoorror part of the same game.

In truth, both trends have an instrumental view of democracy. The American Historical Review, vol. The second reason is the direct continuity of the model of state vio- lence that was put in operation from on, fundamentally crystallized in the military courts, and the continuity of anonymous and illegal violence in and that would be upheld during the rest of the Civil War.

A balance of power system is one in which there are “unitary actors who, at a minimum, seek their own preservation and, at a maximum, drive for universal domina- tion. And for many it is the quintessential expression of the Civil War.

This hypothesis has produced a large body of research on why democracies behave more violently towards non-democratic regimes and whether there is any sort of correlation between internal de- mocratic behaviour and external behaviour.

Wolfgang-Sofsky | Book Depository

This conception, in which I international legitimacy and legality compel states to comply with international norms, implies that cosmopolitan scholars i are more willing to intervene in states when human rights: But this data cannot be verified by the author.

If any of these scholars had any common view about vio- lence that would be the very difficulty of defining it. From the end of and gradu- ally intowhen the failure of the military coup made a long war fore- seeable, revolutionary and military violence were converted by degrees into regulated and institutionalized state violence. Global Society 20p.

Fine, Cosmopolitanism, Routtedge, Londonp. Thus, fantasy and imagination allow human beings to dream about being ”other” people, about immortality, about transcending the self. In this regard, a self-declared realist like Posen maintains that liberal approaches to inter- national law are not enough when you are fighting certain enemies.

The realist position has been very influential in the i United States, but not necessarily in Europe. Indeed, “[t]he move toward democracy after war is the imperative, even in those instances where prior historical legacies had led to newly independent states.

Admittedly, states will use violence when they feel that their j interests and survival are under threat. For Sofsky, all these fantasies are related to the fear of dying. Although this type of universalism tries to avoid an imperial- istic perspective of other cultures, the result is that when human rights violations occur, cosmopolitans seem to be prompt to support a humanitarian intervention in which the analysis of the consequences of the intervention or the cul- tural parameters of the society intervened is not the primary goal.


Indeed, during the execution of hundreds of persons the evident political and ideological connotations of the repression were merely supplementary: Remember me on this computer.

Liberal cosmopolitanism supports a cosmopolitan law ap- plied by democracies and guided by democratic principles, whereas neo-conservatives promote the imposition of democracy even by military means. Sofsky states that violence is in fact an option for human beings.

Wolfgang Sofsky

The privileged conception of democracy hold by liberal cosmopolitans df one of the sides of this dualistic and intrinsically confronted conception of vio- lence in international law. A restricted definition of violence refers to the “positive inter- personal acts of force, usually involving the infliction of physical injury.

Following Sofsky and Coade, we can assert that although violence can be linked to the desire for absolute power and. The debate of this issue is dominated by sacas, paseos, horroor, mass graves, legal and clandestine prisons, torture, con- centration and work camps and overshadows all the accounts of the strug- gle.

In this regard, the United Nations has stood for arguments in favour of democracy in cases in which normative standards were insufficient to approve a military intervention.

Furthermore there were civilians implicated, through denunciation, accusation or simple connivance.

Review of International Studies 33pp. In a statist system in which fear makes commitments for the uorror of power, there is no room for questions of legitimacy because the “states are the agents of the legitimation processes. Leaving aside the field of humanitarian interventions, there is enough ground to assert that the use of force, as designed by the United Nations Charter and applied by the Security Council, is a broad enough concept to give room to various legitimate considerations.